Download Epub Format Þ Pedagogia do Oprimido PDF by ¹ Paulo Freire Just finished my annual rereading of this book Again, teachers in inner city America, teachers on the plains, teachers in rural America read or reread this book now With attempts to oppress our students inside the classroom withandstandardized crap, this isthan ever a must read.
My original review Here is one of those books I think they oughtn t let a teacher in front of a secondary classroom without having read Even the most affluent of our students in contemporary public education classrooms are oppressed to some degree Oppression comes in many attractive wrappings From the trite shite they are brainwashed to care about by the television, to the lies they hear about what their bodies must look like and what they must own to be somebody, I don t know how we ever humanize them any at all Freire can be applied to every studentevery classroom Here was a man who was the real thing A teacher May he rest First Published In Portuguese In , Pedagogy Of The Oppressed Was Translated And Published In English In The Methodology Of The Late Paulo Freire Has Helped To Empower Countless Impoverished And Illiterate People Throughout The World Freire S Work Has Taken On Especial Urgency In The United States And Western Europe, Where The Creation Of A Permanent Underclass Among The Underprivileged And Minorities In Cities And Urban Centers Is Increasingly Accepted As The Norm With A Substantive New Introduction On Freire S Life And The Remarkable Impact Of This Book By Writer And Freire Confidant And Authority Donaldo Macedo, This Anniversary Edition Of Pedagogy Of The Oppressed Will Inspire A New Generation Of Educators, Students, And General Readers For Years To Come .
If you re into really sincere hippie guys, read this on the subway They will swarm.
Warning they ll swarm even if you re not into them, so keep an Atlas Shrugged jacket handy Actually, this book contains one of my guiding light passages Any situation in which some individuals prevent others from engaging in the process of inquiry is one of violence The means used are not important to alienate human beings from their own decision making is to change them into objects 85.
In my fascist state, that passage is tattooed in the original Portuguese on every single social worker, right before they head off into the field Actually, why just the social workers, let s tattoo it on everyone, why not It s a great line I also like the stuff about the oppressors being very damaged by their oppressing It s a very helpful concept that explains a lot The education stuff Weeelllll I grew up in Berkeley, where I never learned any actual math, and I have a strong suspicion someone s ideas for the experimental math curriculum were influenced by Freire, sooooo.
I m biased If I d had a littlebanking education as a youth, I might not need to take off my shoes now to balance my checkbook It s hard to evaluate this book It s kind of like the Beatles I m not really that into it, but where would we be today without its influence It s impossible to know That said, it s a little perplexing that a book about popular education should seem so willfully obtuse and difficult This book is hard to get through I didn t read all of it Still, it s a good idea.
Just finished my annual rereading of this book Again, teachers in inner city America, teachers on the plains, teachers in rural America read or reread this book now With attempts to oppress our students inside the classroom withandstandardized crap, this isthan ever a must read.
My original review Here is one of those books I think they oughtn t let a teacher in front of a secondary classroom without having read Even the most affluent of our students in contemporary public education classrooms are oppressed to some degree Oppression comes in many attractive wrappings From the trite shite they are brainwashed to care about by the television, to the lies they hear about what their bodies must look like and what they must own to be somebody, I don t know how we ever humanize them any at all Freire can be applied to every studentevery classroom Here was a man who was the real thing A teacher May he rest This is one of those books you have to masticate and digest rather than swallow without chewing Freire makes a salad of education, dialogue, poverty, consciousness, and liberation He shares how the powerful have historically dehumanized much of society through subtle yet oppressive means via the aforementioned themes One of his most outstanding lines of reasoning derives from coming alongside of the poor as the starting point in authentic dialogue paving the way for true education and ultimately liberation of the oppressed There are many good thoughts throughout the book In quoting some, I run the risk of minimizing the work What the heck, I can t resist A real humanist can be identifiedby his trust in the people, which engages him in their struggle, than by a thousand actions in their favor without that trust Ooaah As beneficiaries of a situation of oprression, the oppressors cannot perceive that if having is a condition of being, it is a necessary condition for all men That is why their generosity is false Ouch Liberating education consists in acts of cognition, not transferrals of information Santo To alienate men from their own decision making is to change them into objects Yea Vavey.
This is one of those books you have to masticate and digest rather than swallow without chewing Freire makes a salad of education, dialogue, poverty, consciousness, and liberation He shares how the powerful have historically dehumanized much of society through subtle yet oppressive means via the aforementioned themes One of his most outstanding lines of reasoning derives from coming alongside of the poor as the starting point in authentic dialogue paving the way for true education and ultimately liberation of the oppressed There are many good thoughts throughout the book In quoting some, I run the risk of minimizing the work What the heck, I can t resist A real humanist can be identifiedby his trust in the people, which engages him in their struggle, than by a thousand actions in their favor without that trust Ooaah As beneficiaries of a situation of oprression, the oppressors cannot perceive that if having is a condition of being, it is a necessary condition for all men That is why their generosity is false Ouch Liberating education consists in acts of cognition, not transferrals of information Santo To alienate men from their own decision making is to change them into objects Yea Vavey.
Such an important book for educators In the United States, we waste so much time on standardized testing and coaching kids to value education only for an end goal e.
g.
, college admissions, job security We forget to use learning as a tool for improving the world and uplifting marginalized voices Just look at the upcoming presidential election Ifof us followed Paulo Freire s method of careful action and thought, I doubt we would see the vitriol and ignorance and hate so common in contemporary political discourse.
Freire argues that instead of just pouring facts into students minds and thus forcing them to view the world as everyone else does we should form dialogue between teachers and students to facilitate critical thinking Students should have a say in their education and they should understand the processes at work when it comes to creating their own education alongside their teachers We should strive to make learning tangible and applicable, so students can see the merit of their efforts and how the knowledge they gain can change the world.
Sometimes Freire makes the relationship between oppressor and oppressed too dichotomous I would argue that most of us inhabit both roles at any given time and must work to unlearn our oppressive tendencies And I get that Freire s methods come across as idealistic and difficult to apply However, we need his idealism to fuel some sort of change, or at least the beginnings of change As someone who scored a perfect score on his AP Calculus exam in high school without knowing the real meaning or importance of an asymptote or a derivative or a secant, I can say with some confidence that a lot of schools emphasize grades and memorization over process and understanding Yes, we do have many amazing teachers and classes that do encourage critical thinking But the overall system fails to facilitate the type of education Freire advocates for in Pedagogy of the Oppressed, one that views students as humans who deserve compassion and empowerment and love.
As a potential future professor I hope to apply some of this book s principles and I hope that others will too A final quote about love and how it relates to forming dialogues between educators and students, the oppressors and the oppressed Dialogue cannot exist, however, in the absence of a profound love for the world and for people The naming of the world, which is an act of creation and re creation, is not possible if it is not infused with love Love is at the same time the foundation of dialogue and dialogue itself because love is an act of courage, not of fear, love is commitment to others No matter where the oppressed are found, the act of love is commitment to their cause the cause of liberation And this commitment, because it is loving, is dialogical As an act of bravery, love cannot be sentimental as an act of freedom, it must not serve as a pretext for manipulation It must generate other acts of freedom otherwise, it is not love Only by abolishing the situation of oppression is it possible to restore the love which that situation made impossible If I do not love the world if I do not love life if I do not love other people I cannot enter into dialogue.
I feel like its a cliche just rating it here at all, as if doing so stakes a claim to being progressive I haven t read this text in some time, and although It did affect me when I did, I just worry that 5,000 people on the left have rated this book, and many of them will go into classrooms with the best of intentions only to recreate or reinvent oppression when they just can t understand why their students don t get it or resist the liberation we re trying to give them I once applied for a job in a program for poor and even homeless people at a very progressive and well known college I seemed to wow the search committee on the phone interview when I answered the question of how do you bring social justice into the classroom by saying that I wouldn t presume it was up to me to introduce social justice to this particular population I was invited for a campus interview but turned it down for personal reasons, so I do think I must have supported my position well enough Liberation pedagogy can too easily be translated into missionary education when teachers forget that their experiences and their values are notimportant than those of their students or anyone else in the community Freire is careful to note that the teacher and student must be partners in dialogue, but this is easily forgotten when the teacher, even the most well intentioned liberation pedagog, enters the relationship with a goal in mind Whether that goal is the ultimate liberation as conceived by the teacher who thinks s he knows what s best for the student or the meeting of learning objectives, or merely slogging through the semester to let the student earn credits while the teacher bides her or his time until they can get to the research that really matters to them I think this book covers most of the bases, but I have always had trouble reconciling the tendency to work toward an end goal of liberation as defined here when, in fact, a student may have other goals and other notions of liberation at heart Perhaps the process is a longer one than our semester system can accommodate, and so each teacher can only do a small part in helping to undermine the system that stifles humanity I do not think this text was written for people in public schools or universities or community colleges, and the principles can only be adopted if we relinquish hope of seeing results and instead take Freire s cue to learn from and with students in partnership, humbling ourselves and questioning our own supposed authority Most importantly, I think it is important for all of us to think about the profit that comes from institutional education in the US Freire wrote, The oppressors use their humanitarianism to preserve a profitable situation The profit of the system is that of the ruling class, profiting by maintaining power relations in their favor, but if you think about it, even underpaid and overworked teachers profit by earning 1 the prestige of being called a teacher in a society that claims to see the profession as noble and sacrificing, and 2 of course the financial profit of the middle class life which in America means having the power to build a comfortable life of consumption But at the university level there is also the profit of the institution which maintains its legitimacy by claiming to offer class mobility and the liberation of knowledge, but in fact, it is still a profitable institution financially because it provides jobs for teachers, administrators, and staff, and of course the largest profit comes from producing citizens conjured as subjects of institutional power, those who strive for the middle class values which benefit the dominant ideology.
I think this book is important and ought to be read, but it isimportant to read it as a prompt to be perpetually critical and to extend that view to the entire concept of pedagogy, the institutions of education itself, and to ourselves as profiting from the system.
Very little new can be said about Pedagogy of the Oppressed Freire was exiled from Brazil in 1964 for having the temerity to help the poor in his native country begin to learn literacy in the context of taking action for themselves Uneducated as many of the rural poor were and still are , Freire thought that learning to read and write for them might be linked to actual community needs His goal was cultural consciousness, self efficacy, transformation, with love, and in the process, dignity Freire was highly influenced by Catholic Liberation Theology on behalf of the world s neediest, now dismissed by the help of Fox News as any other kind of work for the poor as class warfare against the sadly maligned rich, or shudder socialism The idea was that Jesus might just have beenof a socialist than, say, a venture capitalist Preposterous Where are their bootstraps He was also highly influenced by Marxism, now dismissed by the neoliberal political philosophy of our day as hopelessly pass , comically revolutionary Freire published this book in 1970, and it has never been out of print, largely because of lefty university professors hopelessly out of touch with the Need to Prepare Young People for Success in a Global Economy People like me.
Some of Freire s key ideas, starting with some of the problems Oppression This one is a little controversial now, in that in most postmodern thinking binaries such as oppressor oppressed are not seen as useful True, it s a kind of essentializing that actually fails to respect that the oppressed may indeed have power, but that s implicit in the theory s message, finally, too The good guys in the white hats scenario he sets up romanticizes the poor and demonizes the rich, okay, but you know, with a growing understanding of the 1% and increasing inequities worldwide, maybe a little demonizing is actually in order Leaders who do not act dialogically, but insist on imposing their decisions, do not organize the people they manipulate them They do not liberate, nor are they liberated they oppress Malefic generosity Charity rich people giving poor people food rather than helping them raise crops for themselves Makes the rich feel less guilty, and the poor emain disempowered Work WITH the poor in dialogue to see what they need Don t assume what they need A form of oppression, actually Banking education In contrast to literacy as an approach to active learning, banking education is passive, based on the theory that education takes place when teachers pour knowledge deposit it, theoretically, as if this could actually be done into empty student brains Another form of oppression Pedagogy or learning, really, as a means of self governance and for the purpose of working toward change, for equity Not just learning facts, in other words, but learning in the context of contributing to social life Learning, together, not just top down teaching or lecturing Learning as doing, and not just any kind of doing, but doing for improving the planet Praxis Liberation is a praxis the action and reflection of men and women upon their world in order to transform it Not just blind action such as terror , and not just verbalism or intellectualism which is the idea of pure vs applied theory in academia , but praxis requires both thinking and reflecting together Thoughtful action The Word and the World To speak a true word is to transform the world Literacy learning is not just memorizing words or just making sentences as a kind of practice, but to take action on the world, to better it Speaking true words about real problems is inquiry, where people actually learn through doing Dewey for themselves You pose a problem and find the language to inquire into the problem and how to solve it Problem posing education You start learning with inquiry, with actual qustions you need to answer, based in needs in your life and community Learning shouldn t be preparation for school, but be actual learning through life Not abstractions, but concrete realities Helping students to becomefully human, helping them see that they do not have dwell in ennui but can actually take action against inequities and injustice to alienate human beings from their own decision making is to change them into objects Dialogue where learners dialogue with teacher learners and the world itself Dialogic education vs monologic education, which is mainly what students do in school Listen and take tests on how well they have listened Authentic thinking does not take place in empty thinking, in ivory tower thinking, but in communication One must seek to live with others in solidarity only through communication can human life hold meaning Critical consciousness What you get from dialogic education, vs Unconsciousness, which is what happens from being endlessly lectured to by arrogant teachersto alienate human beings from their own decision making is to change them into objects True learning requires intentionality, investment Love This is the Catholic in Freire, working in tandem with his emphasis on humility and doubt and caring If I do not love the world, if I do not love life, if I do not love people, I cannot enter into dialogue The basic tenor of the book is sweetness, goodness, love, compassion, commitment to justice.
This book I have read and taught in dialogue many times I think it is ironic he includes so few examples of what he is talking about, though he does, and in various other books it gets clearer For a guy opposed to verbalism, he talks quite a bit in abstractions, developing a theory apparently apart from practice And today it almost seems hopeless to imagine a revolution among the world s poor Still, this is a great book, and maybe evenimportant than it was in the sixties for a world desperately needing solutions to so many problems One of the basic questions that we need to look at is how to convert merely rebellious attitudes into revolutionary ones in the process of the radical transformation of society Merely rebellious attitudes or actions are insufficient, though they are an indispensable response to legitimate anger It is necessary to go beyond rebellious attitudes to aradically critical and revolutionary position, which is in fact a position not simply of denouncing injustice but of announcing a new utopia Transformation of the world implies a dialectic between the two actions denouncing the process of dehumanization and announcing the dream of a new society On the basis of this knowledge, namely, to change things is difficult but possible, we can plan our political pedagogical strategy Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of Freedom Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage 19722013 .
The oppressors do not perceive their monopoly on having as a privilege which dehumanizes others and themselves They cannot see that, in the egoistic pursuit of havingas a possessive class, they suffocate in their possessions and no longer arethey merely haveFor them, having is an inalienable right, a right they acquired through their own effort , with their courage to take risks If others do not have , it is because they are incompetent and lazy, and worst of all is their unjustifiable ingratitude towards the generous gestures of the dominant class Precisely because they are ungrateful and envious , the oppressed are regarded as potential enemies who must be watched.
Paulo Freire wrote Pedagogy of the Oppressed in 1960s Brazil, but his critical theories extend to any society today whose heart beats to the drum of capitalism and consumerism The book is eminently quotable and makes it point much better than I ever could, so in the spirit of dialogue which is an instrument of liberation, I will allow my own thoughts to dialogue with those of Senhor Freire.
The rich and the poor, the haves and the have nots, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat the theme of opposition between social classes is not new to sociology, nor is the idea that these vertical relationships result in a lack of opportunity and ultimate dehumanization of those at the bottom of the social ladderThe means used are not important to alienate men from their own decision making is to change them into objects.
I hear echoes of Marx in the background, and Freire s nods to his Latin American communist brethren come as no surprise The first step to changing this socially unjust order is to recognise its existence The pedagogy of the oppressed is an instrument for their critical discovery that both they and their oppressors are manifestations of dehumanization.
The pedagogy of the oppressed is akin to a commitment to social justice, resulting in an eventual transformation of an existing, unequal power structure It all begins with education Freire very meticulously outlines his theory of what education should be, in marked contrast to what it is an oppressive form of education read indoctrination , which he terms the banking concept of education, because the teacher simply deposits tidbits of knowledge or cash into the student s head bank account without actually teaching the student to fish sorry, these metaphors are tricky little buggers Any situation in which some men prevent others from engaging in the process of inquiry is one of violence.
What we need is a pedagogy that is problem posing , that engages students in dialogue and teaches people to ask questions The goal of this broad canvas curriculum is the gradual awakening of a critical consciousness There is a criticism looming are we not still using an us them, teacher student framework The teacher in this scenario is engaged in the process alongside the students , and is just as likely to come from the ranks of the oppressed as the oppressors, as everyone s consciousness is distorted by this oppressive power structure It is key, however, for the leaders of the transformation to have unshakable trust in the people s inherent capabilities.
These ideas may seem great but obvious, or too theoretical, or dissociated from daily life in insert your country here But Freire s pedagogical notions are applicable at the level of any helping relationship, revolution notwithstanding I work with the homeless, and it is harder to imagine a subset of the population that isacquainted with the injustices of poverty, powerlessness and dehumanization It is far too easy for intervention workers to fall back on their degrees, their critical analysis of a situation, and develop the habit of telling a homeless person what they should do, rather than engaging in a veritable dialogue and placing trust in that person s experiential knowledge It is commonplace to kindly dismiss the opinions of people who are mentally ill, or addicted to drugs or alcohol, and reinforce their powerlessness by making decisions for them, in their best interest Freire asks us to question this reflex, and reflect on how it adds to the predicament faced by marginalised people Self depreciation is another characteristic of the oppressed, which derives from their internalization of the opinion the oppressors hold of them So often do they hear that they are good for nothing, know nothing and are incapable of learning anything that they are sick, lazy, and unproductive that in the end they become convinced of their own unfitnessWhether the message is direct or veiled, the end result is the same the oppressed person knows their place, and is liable to stay there unless something can halt this chain of negative actions and reactions At its core, Freire s pedagogy is a process of working together The transformation of a power structure needs to be a mutual process, involving both the oppressed and their oppressors But almost always, during the initial stage of the struggle, the oppressed, instead of striving for liberation, tend themselves to become oppressors, or sub oppressors The very structure of their thought has been conditioned by the contradictions of the concrete, existential situation by which they were shapedThis truth terrifies me How is it that people born and bred in absolute poverty can go on to amass millions, flaunting their riches and living with their contradictions How can promising young politicians be initiated into the very culture of corruption they professed to want to change It is easier to cross the bridge to the other side than to change the entire landscape.
There will always be great resistance to change, because any situation of startling inequality works quite swimmingly for those at the top Conditioned by the experience of oppressing others, any situation other than their former seems to them like oppression Formerly, they could eat, dress, wear shoes, be educated, travel, and hear Beethoven while millions did not eat, had no clothes or shoes, neither studied nor traveled, much less listened to Beethoven Any restriction on this way of life, in the name of the rights of the community, appears to the former oppressors as a profound violation of their individual rights although they had no respect for the millions who suffered and died of hunger, pain, sorrow, and despair For the oppressors, human beings refers only to themselves other people are things For the oppressors, there exists only one right their right to live in peace, over against the right, not always even recognized, but simply conceded, of the oppressed to survival And they make this concession only because the existence of the oppressed is necessary to their own existence.
It is this belief in the right to live in peace, without restrictions, that drives the capitalist machine, collateral damage be damned I m looking at you, America.
I wasinterested in Freire s views on oppression than fleshing out his pedagogical solutions, so forgive me for sidestepping thetechnical aspects of his treatise and flying all over the map with this review Pedagogy of the Oppressed is farorganised, I assure you, and a worthwhile mine of ideas for the sociologically inclined.
I just finished reading Paulo Freire s Pedagogy of the Oppressed It was life altering, as I knew it would be, and pointed the way forward clearly to how we can begin the revolution If our aim is, as loving humans, to eradicate homelessness, poverty, racism, classism, and sexism, our revolution must be educative and cultural Educative meaning that it is a process of reflection, critical thinking, and dialogue cultural meaning that it must act decisively on our ways of being and inhabiting society One way that Freire tells us this can be done and I mention it here because a lot of people question what practical steps can be taken to begin the revolution is by bearing witness.
Bearing witness is an action It is a way for us to begin to live our lives in ways that fruitfully impact our world Freire tells us that the historical essential elements of witness are 1 Consistency matching words with actions.
2 Boldness confronting the issues that matter, not shirking or avoiding our responsibilities towards equitable humanity.
3 Radicalization leading both the people bearing witness and those receiving witness to increasing action.
4 Courage to love rather than accommodating an unjust world, transforming the world so increase our own liberation.
5 Faith belief that we can change ourselves in collaboration with others.
I truly believe that it is through the integration of the personal and the political that we begin the revolution We cannot think about how to economically love developing countries, if we cannot love the homeless man we pass on our way to Whole Paycheck, errFoods We cannot have faith that the world can change, if we cannot start a dialogue with our annoying younger sister about how to better our relationship The revolution begins with a commitment to bearing witness in our small personal lives AND acting on the political scale, the two are not in sequence.
It is really hard to bear witness I struggle with it everyday I have to fight my own inclination to rush out to those post Christmas sales, and figure out new ways to love my heinous roommate It is a process, for sure But the revolution must begin How else can we continue being human .