[Euripides] ✓ Ἰφιγένεια ἐν Ταύροις / Βάκχαι / Ἰφιγένεια ἐν Αὐλίδι / Ῥῆσος [politics PDF] Read Online ✓ The Bacchae, written by Euripedes, is a great tragedy work that uses the plays complicated society structure to demonstrate the battle between the two extremes too much freedom and too much control The first half of the play details Pentheus and his control over Thebes, and by the end we discover that too much freedom and celebration displayed by Dionysius left the play a tragedy As the audience, we discover the battle between Appollinian and Dionysian perspectives are the cause for the struggle in their society The battle between the two opposing Gods, Dionysius versus Pentheus, is a battle between egos Dionysius is a threat to Pentheus and his demand for order and control Dionysius would rather promote liberation, celebration, and chaos It is understood throughout the play that the power and role these two Gods serve is a threat to their society A primary theme in the story was the women empowerment and liberation led by Agave, Pentheus mother, and her sisters as well This contradicts the Apollinian ideology that is represented by Pentheus It is easy to not side with Pentheus because of his ideas of control and order, but by the end there is a clear understanding the delusion plagued by Dionysius on his followers Agave having the power to kill her son, but not register until later revealed shows the power Dionysius has to delude a group of women This is where a balance between order and chaos needs to be in place, so that conflict would not continue The struggle for self control and moderation is needed in the society The battle of excessive freedom and excessive control would result in a conflicted society, Euripedes reveals the complexity of societal structures and the theoretical arguments that pertain to the story idea of delusion would against would The women were so out of their mind that they were under the impression that Pentheus himself was a lion when disguised as a Maenad Pentheus was manipulated by Dionysius to not use his power and force Pentheus represents the order, Legality, and control over women In order to abolish this societal structure, Dionysius is responsible for the extreme chaos resulted by the death of Penthus and the exile of Agave and her sisters Euripede delivers the idea of how a society can result if order and chaos is not in balance.
The Bacchae was an interesting story from beginning to end The short play kept me attentive and left me wanting to read Greek tragedies Euripides produced a play that starts as a drama and ends in a tragedy The play questions if there is room in this society for non rational in a seemingly structure, ordered society Euripedes created the play around 400 BCE for a society that could be entertained, yet question those in power and what if women were empowered as depicted in the Bacchae This same idea can be applied today and makes us question those in control in order to identify a balance that is progressive and just.
I wanted to read The Bacchae because I had a sense that it had something to do with Dostoevsky sDemons , which I recently finished It did, in the sense that both works tell the story of a city visited by Dionysian frenzy In Euripides s drama, the frenzy is Dionysus s revenge on the women of Thebes for insulting his mother by claiming that she lied when she said that Zeus was his father The dramatic conflict centers on Pentheus, king of the city and grandson of its founder, who wants to suppress the outbreak of Bacchic worship among the city s women This draws him into combat with a disguised Dionysus himself, who eventually leads the proud Puritan disguised as a female worshiper, ostensibly to spy on the reveling women to his doom as he is torn to pieces by the frenzied women, including finally his own mother The whole play reads like a mysterious rite that should have some official mythological title The Sacrifice of the Stern King or something The locus of the audience s sympathy is exactly nowhere the raving puritanical leader, driven to increasing displays of power that reveal only his impotence, is, considered as a political type, always bad news while the vindictive god and his manipulated worshipers, who go by degrees from good anarchy freedom and play in nature to bad anarchy violence without limit , offer a painful reminder of the checkered career of revolution in human history In the translator s preface to this volume, Philip Vellacott offers a kind of Freudian reading of the play in which Euripides is warning us that if we deny the claims of the Dionysian impulses to play and drunkenness that is, if we become puritanical these repressed urges will return with a vengeance and destroy us That s as good an interpretation as any Dostoevsky, writing after both monotheism and the Enlightenment, can t explicitly credit the Dionysian urges themselves the necessity for relief from order, for a bit of creative destruction because history offers them to him only under the sign of universalist political ideology communism, anarchism, socialism , to which he counterposes Christianity Maybe Euripides had the better poetic opportunity in being able to start from a polytheistic premise in which the different dimensions of human thought and feeling are each honored with autonomy Then again, his tragedy moves with grim inevitability toward its violent end, so perhaps the translator s 20th century optimism is misplaced because, whether in 5th century Athens or 19th century Russia, the rite must happen in full, including the bloodshed.
As for the rest of this volume I ve owned it for almost 15 years, having bought it for a Greek civilization class in which we were assigned The Women of Troy I only skimmed that play this time around, revisiting my undergraduate annotations, but it remains a remarkable work, less a drama than a series of lamentations by the eponymous women as they go into Greek slavery after the Trojan War But the play is ironic dramatically ironic, in fact in that the Greeks have by their desecration of Troy s temples earned the gods displeasure after their victory and are themselves about to be scattered over the seas, subject to the same violence from on high as the women they prey upon Helen is a strange comedy a self parody, acceding to the scholars, possibly first performed for an all female audience at a festival honoring Demeter and Persephone Fast moving and uneven in tone, it posits in an idea apparently derived from Herodotus that the Helen taken by Paris to Troy was just an illusion generated by Hera to revenge herself on Athena, which means, as our translators points out, that the whole Trojan War was fought for literally nothing This play finds Helen in Egyptian exile and dramatizes her reunion and escape with Menelaus The first and earliest play in the volume, Ion, is a bitterly and grotesquely funny story of paternity in which the title character, Apollo s son conceived in rape of a mortal woman, is reunited with his mother and both are convinced by the gods to pretend to go along with the idea that he is the illegitimate child of another man entirely, his mother s current husband, so that he can go on to found Greek settlements in Asia This is Euripides at his most corrosive, with the gods as rapacious schemers and mortals as their changeable pawns by the happy ending, everybody stands accused Speaking of Dionysus and women and irony and intellectual reactionaries I am reminded that Nietzsche hated Euripides for his subjection of the gods to ironic portrayal and criticism and for his sympathetic depiction of women and slaves and other untermenschen For Nietzsche, Euripides was a kind of Ibsen of antiquity, a Socratic Enlightener dispelling the ritual quality of tragedy by forcing reason into the proceedings But what makes Euripides great, sublime because not in spite of his pervasive mockery, is that his irony is so total it encompasses the universe, so that we sympathize with the victims of history without imagining that much can be done about their plight, even as we also see that their tormentors and rulers are caught in the same capricious machinations of the amoral and immoral gods If this is Ibsenite, it is like The Wild Duck than like The Doll s House a dramatic world in where there are no answers, where truth does not console, and where the innocent and the guilty alike pay the price.
E Latein Thema AnzeigenGospel Of John In MODERN Greek Internet ArchivePREVIOUS POSTNEXT POST Not Their Finest Houre Latein Thema Anzeigen AufgabeLektionstext Der Ganze Text Steht Im Prsens Ein Gast Schreibt Am Abend Werden Die Kranken Versammelt Oder Im Medium Am Abend Versammeln Sich Die Kranken E Latein Thema Anzeigen AufgabeAufgabevon Disciplina SaJun , Und Weiter Geht Es Auch An Dieser Stelle Bitte Ich Um Korrektur Le Corto Restaurant, H Chi Minh Ville Restaurant AvisTripAdvisor Remet L Attestation D Excellence Aux Hbergements, Attractions Et Restaurants Qui Reoivent Rgulirement D Excellentes Notes De La Part Des VoyageursM YouTubeATMT MCB YouTube TRD MCB Auto Blvd LLC Auto Dealership In San Antonio Terms And Conditions I Agree To Receive Text Messages From Auto Blvd LLC Representatives And Understand That No Consent To Texting Is Required For Purchase Of Products Or Services My edition has four plays Ion, The Women of Troy, Helen, and The Bacchae.
Ion The orphan Ion tries to discover his origins The play begins with a prologue by Hermes, the messenger god, who arrives at the temple of Apollo at Delphi He recounts the tale of how Creusa, the mother of Ion, was raped by Apollo and secretly gave birth to a son She abandoned him and Apollo sent Hermes to bring the boy to Delphi I thought this was not as interesting as the other three plays The Women of Troy The fates of Hecuba, Andromache, Cassandra and the other women of Troy after their city has been sacked, their husbands killed, and their remaining families about to be taken away as slaves It takes place near the same time as Hecuba, which is not in this volume I have read this one before in a newer translation It is stunning.
Helen The play uses a variant of Helen s story that differs from the one in The Iliad Helen of Sparta was in Egypt during the Trojan War while a phantom look alike created by Hera and Hermes was carried off to Troy Herodotus, among others, had suggested that this is what really happened in his Histories Euripides has Helen taken to Egypt by the gods, and by the time the play opens, the real Helen has been living in Egypt for seventeen years The Egyptian king Proteus, who had protected Helen, has died His son Theoclymenus, intends to marry Helen, who after all these years remains loyal to her husband Menelaus.
The Bacchae One of the most disturbing Greek plays This is probably my favorite play by Euripides This is Euripides s last surviving tragedy It premiered posthumously at the Theatre of Dionysus in 405 BC The play begins with the god Dionysus, the son of Zeus and Semele, announcing that he has arrived in Thebes to disprove the slander, spread by his mother s family, that Zeus is not his real father and that he is not a god As the play opens, Dionysus has driven the women of Thebes into an ecstatic frenzy, and they have gathered on Mount Cithaeron to dance.
The Bacchae is a family tragedy, but as any audience will attest, it is singularly Agaue s tragedy, which is all the remarkable given that the queen only appears on stage for one scene In fact, besides Pentheus, the Cadmus family Cadmus and Agaue only appears in the first and last scenes, while the core of the drama exclusively involves Dionysus and Pentheus By keeping the Cadmus family at the periphery of the main action, Euripides uses them as background, frame and context They amplify and filter the core events, but have no part in those events as physical characters on the stage They also serve as commentators and critics in theatrical terms they are an audience on the core events and it is largely in the last scene that they get to flesh out various themes Both members do accept responsibility for what happened to Pentheus, but in two different ways they also criticize Dionysus s justice Agaue s heart wrenching grief and murderous guilt testifies to Dionysus s excessive, harsh and cruel revenge Cadmus reproaches Dionysus twice, directly saying that the god s retributive justice did not fit the offense However, the god merely brushes these two laments aside with the fatalistic comment that Zeus set up a world of harsh gods.
While Euripides follows a number of formal classical traditions in The Bacchae, such as a complicated chorus and the use of messenger, he diverges quite starkly from Aristotle s ideal of drama In classical Greek drama, and as defined by Aristotle in his Poetics, there is also a moment of recognition at the very end when our hero, full of hubris, realizes his error and passes from ignorance to knowledge This is tied to the moment of catharsis for the audience, or the moment of the release of the emotions that had been built up before Finally, there is a hearty lament Pentheus does not truly repent and re evaluate his mistake, nor indulge in metaphysical musings He merely uses the word error in the one line where he begs his mother not to kill him Importantly, too, the audience does not explicitly learn anything about Dionysus except that he wants Pentheus to show deference toward him And the main secret of the play, Dionysus s disguise, is known from the start Instead, Euripides writes a shocking, long, and pathos filled lament This disproportionate in classical terms emphasis on the lament signals two things both the excessive cruelty and the absolute power of Dionysus One of the reasons that the last scene depicting a demented Agaue proudly brandishing the head of her son is effective because it is a acted out on the main stage instead of being relayed by messengers Previously, all the gory, disturbing and violent actions of the play, such as the killing of the cattle and the palace miracles, had taken place offstage and were subsequently retold to the audience as a story When this scene is actually played out, the audience is still fresh and able to be deeply shocked Euripides does not flinch from gruesome touches such as having Agaue piece together the son she tore apart Moreover, in this last gesture, the audience realizes that it is not just Pentheus s body that must be reconstructed but also the moral of the story and the future of both Cadmus and Agaue Tragically, some pieces will always be missing.
This collection included Ion, The Women of Troy, Helen, and The Bacchae I have reviewed these plays individually, so I won t discuss them here again Let me just say that overall these plays were great, in particular the last three in fact, I was so impressed by Euripides that I ordered the complete 5 volume edition of his plays as published by the University of Chicago Press I will definitely be reading and reviewing the rest of his works at some point in the near future Links to reviews IonThe Women of TroyHelenThe Bacchae My edition contained 4 plays of Euripides Ion, The Trojan Women, Helen and The Bacchae I had mixed feelings about them and thought that each play went downhill, in the order that I read them above Overall, still a fantastic worth while read.
What is terrible a world with vengeful gods, or a world without them



49 The Bacchae and Other Plays Ion, The Women of Troy, Helen, The Bacchae by EuripidesTranslated by Philip Vellacott, 1954, revised 1973format 249 page Penguin Classics paperbackacquired from my libraryread Aug 7 11rating 4 stars These are all late plays from Euripides They show a lot of developed complexity compared to the collection of earlier plays I read previously His understated satire is still prominent, but has become much sophisticated and not entirely negative His play structure no longer feels like a selection of long dull monologues that only affect in sum, and that are entirely disturbing They are dynamic, they keep the reader viewer entertained, and still, there is so much going on behind the words that is completely counter to what is overtly being said In sum, these are complex and interesting works that deserve multiple readingsbut I have only read them once so far They are also largely anti war statements, a reflection of his times.
Euripides lived from c 480 c 406 bce This meant he lived through Athens 50 years of Greek dominance that lasted from roughly the battle of Salamis in 480 to the beginning of the Peloponnesian war in 431 Athenian citizens would struggle during the long wars with Sparta, especially during the last tens years, and Athens eventually lost in 404 bce Euripides left Athens late in life, retiring in Macedonia Ion 414 bceI can t recall how I know the story of Ion, but it must be somewhat common knowledge Fathered by Apollo, his mother, Creusa, abandons him, then later becomes wife of the ruler of Athens, and barren Ion is raised in Delphi by Apollo worshipers and becomes and attendant at the temple Years later Creusa comes to Delphi to ask Apollo about her son In the ritual process, her husband, Xuthus, is told that Ion is his own son and Creusa and Xuthus take him home to Athens to be their heir The play has many comic elements, such as when Ion and Creusa first meet and, not knowing who each other are, tell their parallel stories Creusa s are told as if they are the tragic story of her close friend But the heart of this story seems to an exploration of truth and how to deal with its uncertainty Ion is quite a lovely character, but the he learns the less he can be certain of Even Athena s appearance does not really help We sense, along with Ion, a great deal of uncomfortable doubt as the play closes The Women of Troy 415 bceA really sad play set in Troy just after its fall The Trojan women have lost their luxury, their sons and husbands and any hope for the future They are to become slaves Hecabe, queen of Troy, morning the loss of her husband and most of her children, including Hector, is the focus as she looks ahead to her future life of slavery She is assigned to Odysseus Cassandra, not yet raped, and knowing all that will come ahead, makes an appears, as does Andromache, who still has her and Hector s son Then Helen appears Her situation is in notable contrast to the hopeless defeated lives around her Helen still has a future Her speech is striking for its lack of guilt But her words can be read in contrasting ways, making her the most interesting part of the play.
The Women of Troy was written in the shadow of the Battle of Melos in 415 bce Melos had tried to stay neutral between Athens and Sparta Athens attacked and had every man who could bear arms executed and enslaved the women and children Helen 412 bceA surreal plot, has Helen sits in Egypt, trapped She never was taken by Paris to Troy, but instead a ghost made of air was taken The play is about her getting reunited with her husband, Menelaus, and their comic escape from Egypt But, the unstated point is that Trojan war and all it s consequences were for nothing but a puff of air It s a very strong antiwar play, told in a way to get past the Athenian censors The Bacchae 405 bce posthumous Written in exile, and free of Athenian wartime censorship, Euripides put his whole life of play writing into the The Bacchae On the surface it s the story of how Dionysus, still a young unproven god, takes revenge on his family, rulers in Thebes His cousin, Pentheus, bull headed ruler of Thebes, has fiercely banned worship of Dionysos and this Bacchanal frenzy But, worship continues Dionysus uses the frenzy as his tool He sets up Pentheus to be torn apart alive by his own mother and his aunts.
It s, first, a curious look into the mythology of Bacchic worship and its rituals Worshipers are viewed as promiscuous and insane, but are actually quite modest in their actions A contrast is explored between the controlled cities and their view on what they see as civilization think war time, repressive Athens and humanity s animal natures It s the most interesting play of Euripides that I ve read.
The Bacchae I have seen the holy Bacchae, who like a flight of spearsWent streaming bare limbed, frantic, out of the city gate What, woman What was that you said Do you exultWhen such a cruel fate has overtaken the king I am no Greek.
I sing my joy in a foreign tune When bull led man to the ritual slaughter ring He d have been my god, were I Greek or one of these foreign women Even without him, I believe that his forces or his spheres, unacknowledged, are dangerous whether religious or psychological, this play always spoke to me Perhaps the part where Agave triumphs ignorantly with her son s head, is drawn out, over milked, but that s theatre for you The effeminate foreigner who is Dionysus in disguise who celebrates that rare goddess , Peace who cross dresses the king to make a laughingstock of him whose worshippers abandon the loom to tear wild beasts limb from limb what s not to love and fascinate So much, too, is uncannily familiar My personal no 1 ancient Greek play.